ERC Funded Projects

Displaying 1 - 6 of 6 results
  • Rcn
    206446
    Nid
    16791
    Project acronym
    AGATM
    Project
    A Global Anthropology of Transforming Marriage
    Host Institution (HI)
    The University Of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Call details
    Advanced Grant (AdG), ERC-2015-AdG
    Summary
    This research will create a new theoretical vision of the importance of marriage as an agent of transformation in human sociality. Marriage globally is undergoing profound change, provoking intense debate and anxiety. These concerns refract wider instabilities in political, economic, and familial institutions. They signal the critical role of marriage in bringing together - and separating - intimate, personal, and familial life with wider state institutions. But we have little up to date comparative research or general theory of how marriage changes or the long-term significance of such change. Paradoxically, social scientific and public discourse emphasise the conservative and normative aspects of marriage. This underlines the need for a new theoretical frame that takes account of cultural and historical specificity to grasp the importance of marriage as both vehicle of and engine for transformation. AGATM overturns conventional understandings by viewing marriage as inherently transformative, indeed at the heart of social and cultural change. The research will investigate current transformations of marriage in two distinct senses. First, it will undertake an ethnographic investigation of new forms of marriage in selected sites in Europe, N. America, Asia, and Africa. Second, it will subject ‘marriage’ to a rigorous theoretical critique that will denaturalise marriage and reintegrate it into the new anthropology of kinship. Research on five complementary and contrastive sub-projects examining emerging forms of marriage in different locations will be structured through the themes of care, property, and ritual forms. The overarching analytic of temporality will frame the theoretical vision of the research and connect the themes. The resulting six monographs, journal articles, and exhibition will together revitalise the study of kinship by placing the moral, practical, political, and imaginative significance of marriage over time at its centre.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    2,297,584
    Duration
    Start date: 2017-01-01, End date: 2021-12-31
  • Rcn
    198451
    Nid
    14738
    Project acronym
    KINSHIP
    Project
    How do humans recognise kin?
    Host Institution (HI)
    University Of Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Call details
    Consolidator Grants (CoG), ERC-2014-CoG
    Summary
    Kinship moderates important social outcomes, such as interpersonal violence and sexual behaviour, but how do you know who your kin are? On the surface, this appears to be a simple question, but the specific cues and cognitive systems that mediate these complex relationships are yet to be understood. This pioneering project will combine biological theories regarding the essential role of kinship in regulating social and sexual behaviour with advanced methods from experimental psychology, genetics, acoustics, computer graphics and experimental economics, to develop and test the first comprehensive model of human kin recognition. Early research on human kin recognition typically investigated the effect of a single kinship cue on one domain of behaviour and in one relationship type. For example, research on the Westermarck Effect focusses on the effect of co-residence on sexual aversion among siblings. The proposed project will investigate a diverse range of potential kinship cues (e.g., contextual, phenotypic and cognitive), both relevant behavioural domains (i.e., prosocial and sexual), and several relationship types (e.g., primary and secondary; consanguine, affine and adoptive). The resulting model will allow for complex interactions, such as conditional or domain-specific cue use, that are suggested by work on kin recognition in other species. This, in turn, will allow for a greater understanding of the mechanisms underpinning how humans recognise and respond to kin. The project will also produce a quantitative model of how family resemblance is expressed in the face, which will be used to develop novel methodologies for assessing family resemblance from face images and experimentally creating realistic and biologically plausible “virtual relatives” using computer graphics.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    1,984,776
    Duration
    Start date: 2015-10-01, End date: 2020-09-30
  • Rcn
    98547
    Nid
    9326
    Project acronym
    Life-his-T
    Project
    Mapping the life histories of T cells
    Researcher (PI)
    Antonius Nicolaas Maria Schumacher
    Host Institution (HI)
    Stichting Het Nederlands Kanker Instituut-Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, Netherlands
    Call details
    Advanced Grant (AdG), LS6, ERC-2010-AdG
    Summary
    T cells display many different phenotypes and functions, depending on the nature of previously encountered signals. If we want to understand how these different T cell subsets arise, we need to be able to follow individual T cells and their progeny through time. With the aim to map the life histories of individual T cells we have developed unique technologies that allow us to determine whether different T cell populations arise from common or distinct progenitors. Within this project we will utilize genetic reporter systems to determine: 1. How T cell recruitment, proliferation and death shape antigen-specific T cell responses 2. At which stage the resulting T cells commit to the effector or the memory T cell lineage 3. The self renewal potential of the tissue-resident memory T cells that remain after infection is cleared By following T cells and their progeny through time, this project will describe the regulation of cell fate in antigen-specific T cell responses. Furthermore, this project will lead to the creation of novel reporters of cellular history that will be of broad value to analyze cell fate and kinship for a variety of cell types.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    2,499,640
    Duration
    Start date: 2011-05-01, End date: 2017-01-31
  • Rcn
    198681
    Nid
    14917
    Project acronym
    MALMECC
    Project
    Music and Late Medieval European Court Cultures: Towards a Trans-Disciplinary and Post-National Cultural Poetics of the Performative Arts
    Host Institution (HI)
    The Chancellor, Masters And Scholars Of The University Of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Call details
    Advanced Grant (AdG), ERC-2014-ADG
    Summary
    Late medieval European court cultures have traditionally been studied from a mono-disciplinary and national(ist) perspective. This focus has obscured much of the interplay of cultural performances that informed “courtly life”. Recent research has begun to reverse this, focusing on issues such as the tensions between orality, writing, and performance; the sociocultural dimensions of making and owning manuscripts (musical and otherwise); the interstices between musical, literary and visual texts and political, social and religious rituals; and the impact of gender, kinship, and social status on the genesis and transmission of culture and music. These “new medievalist” studies have significantly enhanced our understanding of the cultural meanings of singing, listening, and sound in late medieval times. Taking a decisive step further, MALMECC will, for the first time, systematically explore late medieval (c. 1280-1450) court cultures and their music synoptically across Europe. England, the Low Countries, Avignon, Bohemia, south-eastern Germany/Salzburg, Savoy, and Cyprus have been selected for study as each was a vibrant site of cultural production but has been relatively neglected due to prevailing discursive formations favouring “centres” like Paris and Florence. Linking these courts in a large-scale comparative study focused on the role of music in courtly life but embedded within a multidisciplinary framework encompassing all the arts as well as politics and religion will reveal the complex ecology of late medieval performances of noblesse in unheard-of depth while at the same time throwing the unique qualities of each court into distinct relief. The project will apply an innovative research paradigm that develops a trans-disciplinary and post-national(ist), “relational” approach to the study of music in late-medieval court cultures. In doing so it will integrate all late medieval arts and re-constitute the fullness of their potential meanings.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    2,186,400
    Duration
    Start date: 2016-01-01, End date: 2020-12-31
  • Rcn
    204742
    Nid
    16279
    Project acronym
    MoralisingMisfortune
    Project
    Moralising Misfortune: A comparative anthropology of commercial insurance
    Host Institution (HI)
    Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands
    Call details
    Consolidator Grants (CoG), ERC-2015-CoG
    Summary
    This is a study of the morality of commercial life insurance. What moral issues are raised when commercial companies define responsibilities for misfortune and the appropriateness of entitlements? What are the concerns about the financialization of life and intimacy? First, this study examines the morality of bureaucratic classifications produced by the insurance industry. Classifications reveal particular perspectives on the world and are at the heart of defining the risks covered by life insurance policies, as well as defining exclusionary clauses and who is allowed to take which policies; in addition, they are central to the exploration of consumer markets. What are the moral implications of classification and its associated bureaucratic procedures? Second, the study explores the questions life insurance raises about the value of life. Life insurance literally prices death. How much is a life worth? What lives can be compensated and who can receive compensation? Moral obligations and the allocation of blame may depend on whether financial support is given by commercial companies, kinship, or voluntary associations. This project examines the morality of the integration of life insurance into wider financial systems. The objective of the research is to gain insight into: 1. Public discourses on the role of commercial life insurance in everyday life; 2. The ways in which life insurance gives rise to particular notions of responsibility and compensation. 3. The ways in which the morality of commercial life insurance is intertwined with explaining misfortune, and with organizing care through kinship and voluntary associations. The study will be carried out in five countries: France and the Netherlands – two of the world’s wealthiest countries, with a long history of life insurance; India and Brazil – two of the world’s fastest expanding economies, with a growing insurance market; and the USA – where innovations create new moral concerns.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    1,807,334
    Duration
    Start date: 2016-09-01, End date: 2021-08-31
  • Rcn
    197234
    Nid
    14385
    Project acronym
    VARIKIN
    Project
    Cultural Evolution of Kinship Diversity: Variation in Language, Cognition, and Social Norms Regarding Family
    Host Institution (HI)
    University Of Bristol, United Kingdom
    Call details
    Starting Grant (StG), ERC-2014-STG
    Summary
    Why do human societies differ in whom they class as family? Why are cousins classed with siblings in some societies but not others? Accounting for the variable ways that cultures classify kin is an enduring puzzle. The VARIKIN project takes a cultural evolutionary approach to variety and unity and engages different fields–cultural phylogenetics, corpus linguistics, and cross-cultural child development. VARIKIN-Evolution asks how and why does kinship diversity evolve across cultures and over time? Using comparative phylogenetic modeling of cultural evolution we investigate the dynamics of how kinship terminologies and family norms change in eight language families. Are there “universal” patterns of change, or does local cultural history and context determine changes in family organisation? How do social norms drive change in kinship terminology? VARIKIN-Usage investigates how people use kinship language by using corpus linguistics, surveys, and interviews to quantify patterns of usage in spoken and written language. How frequently are kinship terms used in different contexts and what meanings are more prevalent? Do patterns vary between languages, and can the patterns of usage at the individual level be linked to historical processes of change? VARIKIN-Development investigates how children acquire and understand kinship across cultures. Using participant observation and elicitation tasks, we characterise children’s social learning of kinship in a small-scale, non-Western community. Are there cross-cultural patterns of acquisition? Can socialisation produce constraints on the kinds of kinship children can learn? These three research directions are united by a coherent framework for the integration of macro- and micro-evolutionary processes. With a highly multidisciplinary background, the Applicant is uniquely positioned to direct this vanguard project towards a comprehensive understanding of diversity in how we classify our social worlds.
    Website (HI)
    Max ERC funding
    1,233,672
    Duration
    Start date: 2015-07-01, End date: 2020-06-30